An Initiative may be implemented by a number of Actions. The binary relation InitiativeDrivesAction captures this implementation. Not all Initiatives will have Actions, but those with Actions are Programs.
Causal chaining in Strategy Maps is modeled as a cascade of Actions and their Effects. Actions are linked to their Effects through the binary relation ActionHasEffect. Effects in turn can enable or trigger other Actions. This is modeled with the binary relation EffectFacilitatesAction. For example, the Action of reducing the price of an online sale item has the Effect of increasing interest and willingness to purchase, leading to the Action of making a purchase, having the Effect of increasing sales revenue.
When creating Strategy Maps, intermediate Actions or Effects in a causal chain may be unimportant or uninteresting. The metamodel provides for chaining Effects to Effects and Actions to Actions so that these components do not have to be explicitly modeled. Most of the time, it will be obvious to an analyst or business manager how the causal chain works even without these details.
Here, we see that Outcomes are specializations of Effects. Outcomes are Effects that are important in a Strategy, Initiative, or Scorecard.