Cyber Resiliency is tied to the Securability of the system. Securability is not a single “thing” that can be added to a system. To be truly secure, the entire End-to-End Solution (E2ES) needs to be secure and needs to be considered during the entire System Lifecycle.. As shown in Figure 1, a layered approach is used to help isolate the security needs. Each layer represents a portion of the Information Technology (IT) stack, including the people who use and have access to the IT stack.
The Security non-Functional Requirement includes the following sub-requirements.
Confidentiality is usually covered by using a Confidentiality Agreement or Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA), which defines a set of rules or a promise limiting access or places restrictions on certain types of information. Areas that have legal agreements covering confidentiality are:
Non-Repudiation, (Computer Security Resource Center (CSRC) Accessed 14 August 2020, Non-Repudiation) means that it is not possible to repudiate (i.e., deny) that an action has been taken. For example, the signed contract witnessed by two people could not be repudiated. In other words, the contract now has Non-Repudiation.
Non-Repudiation is about providing assurance using evidence that an action has been done. For example, a data sender is provided evidence (i.e., proof) of delivery while the receiver is provided evidence (i.e., proof) of the sender's identity. As a consequence, neither the sender nor the receiver can deny having processed the data.
Authenticity is a property indicating the source and origin of the information2). The process of authenticating a source starts when an entity (i.e., user, remote process, intelligent agent, etc.) attempts to access resources on a Computer Platform. The entity proves its identity in order to gain access rights. For example, traditionally when logging into a computer, users use Single-Factor Authentication (SFA) , providing a
Accountability is the principle of holding an individual entrusted to safeguard and control key components of a system or program (i.e., equipment, keying material, and information) answerable to proper authority for the loss or misuse of that component. 3)
Accountability is a security goal outlined in ISO/IEC 240104) requiring the actions of an entity to be traced uniquely to that entity. Accountability directly supports Non-Repudiation. It also provides deterrence, helps with fault isolation, and is useful in intrusion detection and prevention. In many cases, it is a key source of the evidence used in an After Action Review (AAR) and can ultimately, if needed, support legal actions.
The first step in designing for Cyber Resiliency is to begin with a Systems Engineering approach and to survey CBDC Stakeholders in order to refine the definitions and expectations of Cyber Resiliency. See CBDC Stakeholders for a more detailed discussion.
An important first step is to follow the NIST Special Publication SP 800-16 volume 2 guidelines for developing cyber-resilient systems. 5). Skipping this step and going right to design and implementation often ends with the problem space (i.e., CBDC) being defined by the product(s) it chooses to use rather than by stakeholder requirements. A product-based solution can work, but it often misses many key requirements important to the stakeholders. For example, the design must be Quantum Computing “safe” or resistant.
SP 800-16 provides a framework for conducting cyber resiliency engineering. It starts with defining and setting the goals, objectives, techniques, implementation approaches, and design principles. Table 2 summarizes the definition and purpose of each construct, and how each construct is applied at the system level. Note: The framework is applicable to levels beyond the system level (e.g., mission or business function level, organizational level, or sector level).
|Construct||Definition, Purpose, and Application at the System Level|
A high-level statement supporting (or focusing on) one aspect (i.e., anticipate, withstand, recover, adapt) in the definition of cyber resiliency.
A high-level statement (designed to be restated in system-specific and stakeholder-specific terms) of what a system must achieve in its operational environment and throughout its life cycle to meet stakeholder needs for mission assurance and resilient security. The objectives are more specific than goals and more relatable to threats.
A statement, subsidiary to a cyber resiliency objective, that emphasizes different aspects of that objective or identifies methods to achieve that objective.
A statement of a capability or action that supports the achievement of a sub-objective and, hence, an objective.
|Strategic Design Principle||
A high-level statement that reflects an aspect of the risk management strategy, which informs systems security engineering practices for an organization, mission, or system.
Once the Systems Engineering is completed, a design can be achieved to foster cyber resiliency.