Ontology Working Group

The Ontology Working Group projects are:


To enable development of ontology-related technology by:

  • bringing together the expertise in the semantics of software with the expertise for knowledge representation, consistency checking, and knowledge-processing, in order to leverage each other’s technologies
  • reaching out to domain-oriented groups at the OMG, and advise them how to adopt appropriate ontology technologies as a means to maximize the reuse, improve the rigor, and eliminate the inconsistencies of their contributions
  • capturing OMG's existing domain knowledge to maximize reuse of experience gained from developing domain-oriented APIs
  • developing working relationships among OMG activities and related activities, such as the semantic web and agent communities
  • gathering together prior work and developing white papers, languages, and mappings (profiles and MOF metamodels)



Topic Resource Description Framework (RDF) XML XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)
AccountingEquity Accounting/AccountingEquity RDF AccountingEquity XML Accounting/AccountingEquity XMI
CurrencyAmount Accounting/CurrencyAmount RDF CurrencyAmount XML Accounting/CurrencyAmount XMI
Agents AgentsAndPeople/Agents RDF Agents XML AgentsAndPeople/Agents XMI
People AgentsAndPeople/People RDF People XML AgentsAndPeople/People XMI
Agreements Agreements/Agreements RDF Agreements XML Agreements/Agreements XMI
Contracts Agreements/Contracts RDF Contracts XML Agreements/Contracts XMI
Goals GoalsAndObjectives/Goals RDF Goals XML GoalsAndObjectives/Goals XMI
Objectives GoalsAndObjectives/Objectives RDF Objectives XML GoalsAndObjectives/Objectives XMI
Jurisdiction Law/Jurisdiction RDF Jurisdiction XML Law/Jurisdiction XMI
LegalCapacity Law/LegalCapacity RDF LegalCapacity XML Law/LegalCapacity XMI
LegalCore Law/LegalCore RDF LegalCore XML Law/LegalCore XMI
FormalOrganizations Organizations/FormalOrganizations RDF FormalOrganizations XML Organizations/FormalOrganizations XMI
LegitimateOrganizations Organizations/LegitimateOrganizations RDF LegitimateOrganizations XML Organizations/LegitimateOrganizations XMI
Organizations Organizations/Organizations RDF Organizations XML Organizations/Organizations XMI
Control OwnershipAndControl/Control RDF Control XML OwnershipAndControl/Control XMI
Ownership OwnershipAndControl/Ownership RDF Ownership XML OwnershipAndControl/Ownership XMI
Parties Parties/Parties RDF Parties XML Parties/Parties XMI
Roles Parties/Roles RDF Roles XML Parties/Roles XMI
Addresses Places/Addresses RDF Addresses XML Places/Addresses XMI
Countries Places/Countries RDF Countries XML Places/Countries XMI
Locations Places/Locations RDF Locations XML Places/Locations XMI
Relations Relations/Relations RDF Relations XML Relations/Relations XMI
AnnotationVocabulary Utilities/AnnotationVocabulary RDF AnnotationVocabulary XML Utilities/AnnotationVocabulary XMI
BusinessFacingTypes Utilities/BusinessFacingTypes RDF BusinessFacingTypes XML Utilities/BusinessFacingTypes XMI



OMG Ontology Specific

Reference ID Title Organization Version Date Link
EDMC-FIBO/FND Financial Industry Business Ontology Foundations OMG Specification Beta 1 January 2014 http://www.omg.org/spec/EDMC-FIBO/FND/1.0/Beta1/
MOF Sem STRUCT MOF Support for Semantic Structures Request for Proposal OMG Document ad/2006-06-08 June 2006 http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?ad/06-06-08
MOF RDF MAP MOF to RDF Mapping Request for Proposal OMG Document ontology/2006-06-01 June 2007 http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?ontology/06-06-01
ODM RFP Ontology Definition Metamodel Request for Proposal OMG Document ad/2003-03-40 http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?ad/2003-03-40
ODM Spec Ontology Definition Metamodel (ODM) OMG Specification version 1.1 September 2014 http://www.omg.org/spec/ODM/
PRR Production Rule Representation (PRR) OMG Specification Beta 1 November 2007 http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?dtc/07-11-04
RDF-MOF REP PIM RDF-MOF Repository PIM Request for Proposal OMG Document ontology/2006-06-02 June 2007 http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?ontology/06-06-02
SBVR Spec Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules (SBVR) OMG Specification version 1.2 November 2013 http://www.omg.org/spec/SBVR/

OMG General Specifications

Reference ID Title Organization Version Date Link
UML2.1 Infra Unified Modeling Language: Infrastructure OMG Specification version 2.1. ptc/06-04-03 Latest version (convenience document) is available at http://www.omg.org/docs/ptc/ 06-04-03.pdf
UML2.1 Unified Modeling Language: Superstructure OMG Specification version 2.1. ptc/06- 04-02. Latest version (convenience document) is available at http://www.omg.org/docs/ ptc/06-04-02.pdf

Other Specifications

Reference ID Title Organization Version Date Notes Link
W3C Defining N-ary Relations on the Semantic Web: Use with Individuals W3C Working Draft 21 July 2004 http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-swbp-n-aryRelations-20040721/
OWL OV OWL Web Ontology Language Overview W3C Recommendation 10 February 2004 Deborah L. McGuinness and Frank van Harmelen eds. Latest version is available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/
OWL Reference OWL Web Ontology Language Reference W3C Recommendation 10 February 2004 Mike Dean, Guus Schreiber, eds. Latest version is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/ owl-ref/
OWL XML Syntax OWL Web Ontology Language XML Presentation Syntax W3C Note 11 June 2003 Masahiro Hori, Jérôme Euzenat, and Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Editors. Latest version is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-xmlsyntax/
PartWhole W3C Simple part-whole relations in OWL Ontologies W3C Working Draft 15 January 2005 http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~rector/swbp/simple-part-whole/simple-part-whole- relations-v0-2.html
RDF/TM W3C A survey of RDF/Topic Maps Interoperability Proposals W3C Working Draft 29 March, 2005 Latest version is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-rdftm-survey-20050329
XSCHD XML Schema Datatypes in RDF and OWL W3C Working Group Note 14 March 2006 Jeremy J. Carroll, Jeff Z. Pan, eds. Latest version is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/ swbp-xsch-datatypes/

Other References

SCL Translation Translating Semantic Web Languages into SCL Patrick Hayes, IHMC, November 2004 Latest version available at http://www.ihmc.us/users/phayes/CL/SW2SCL.htm
WinChafHerr A taxonomy of part-whole relations Cognitive Science 1987 chapter 11. pages 417-444 M. Winston, R. Chaffin, and D. Herrmann


The following definitions are relevant to the Ontology subject.

Acronym Term Definitions Source
CMOF Complete MOF The CMOF, or Complete MOF, Model is the model used to specify other metamodels such as UML2. It is built from EMOF and the Core::Constructs of UML. The CMOF package does not define any classes of its own. Rather, it merges packages with its extensions that together define basic metamodeling capabilities. ODM 1.1 PDF
CL Common Logic Common Logic is a first order logic framework intended for information exchange and transmission. The framework allows for a variety of different syntactic forms, called dialects, all expressible within a common XML-based syntax and all sharing a single semantics. ODM 1.1 PDF
CIM Computation Independent Model A computation independent model is a view of a system from the computation independent viewpoint. A CIM does not show details of the structure of systems. A CIM is sometimes called a domain model, and a vocabulary that is familiar to the practitioners of the domain in question is used in its specification. Some ontologies are essentially CIMs from a software engineering perspective. ODM 1.1 PDF
DL Description Logics Description logics are knowledge representation languages tailored for expressing knowledge about concepts and concept hierarchies, and typically represent a decidable subset of traditional first order logic. Description logic systems have been used for building a variety of applications including conceptual modeling, information integration, query mechanisms, view maintenance, software management systems, planning systems, configuration systems, and natural language understanding. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a member of the description logics family of knowledge representation languages. ODM 1.1 PDF
ER Entity-Relationship An ER (entity-relationship) diagram is a graphical modeling notation that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a domain. ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information. Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes. ODM 1.1 PDF
EMOF Essential MOF Essential MOF is the subset of MOF that most closely corresponds to the facilities found in object-oriented programming languages and in XML. It provides a straightforward framework for mapping MOF models to implementations such as JMI and XMI for simple metamodels. A primary goal of EMOF is to allow simple metamodels to be defined using simple concepts while supporting extensions (by the usual class extension mechanism in MOF) for more sophisticated metamodeling using CMOF. ODM 1.1 PDF
interpretation A relationship between individuals in a universe of discourse and the symbols and relations in a model such that the model expresses truths about the individuals. ODM 1.1 PDF
KIF Knowledge Interchange Format Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) is a computer-oriented language for the interchange of knowledge among disparate systems. It has declarative semantics (i.e., the meaning of expressions in the representation can be understood without appeal to an interpreter for manipulating those expressions); it is logically comprehensive (i.e., it provides for the expression of arbitrary sentences in the first-order predicate calculus); it provides for the representation of knowledge about the representation of knowledge; it provides for the representation of non-monotonic reasoning rules; and it provides for the definition of objects, functions, and relations. KIF was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s through support of the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. There are several “flavors” of KIF in use today, including the best known versions: ANSI KIF (i.e., Knowledge Interchange Format dpANS, NCITS.T2/98-004, http://logic.stanford.edu/kif/dpans.html) and KIF Reference (i.e., Version 3.0 of the KIF Reference Manual, http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/knowledge-sharing/papers/kif.ps). For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to KIF should be considered references to the KIF 3.0 Reference Manual cited in the Non-normative References sub clause of this specification. ODM 1.1 PDF
MDF Meta-Object Facility The Meta Object Facility (MOF), an adopted OMG standard, provides a metadata management framework, and a set of metadata services to enable the development and interoperability of model and metadata driven systems. Examples of these systems that use MOF include modeling and development tools, data warehouse systems, metadata repositories etc. For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to MOF should be considered references to the Meta-Object Facility 2.0 Core Specification. ODM 1.1 PDF
OCL Object Constraint Language The Object Constraint Language (OCL), an adopted OMG standard, is a formal language used to describe expressions on UML models. These expressions typically specify invariant conditions that must hold for the system being modeled or queries over objects described in a model. Note that when the OCL expressions are evaluated, they do not have side effects; i.e., their evaluation cannot alter the state of the corresponding executing system. For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to OCL should be considered references to the UML 2.0 Object Constraint Language Specification. ODM 1.1 PDF
ODM Ontology Definition Metamodel The Ontology Definition Metamodel (ODM), as defined in this specification, is a family of MOF metamodels, mappings between those metamodels as well as mappings to and from UML, and a set of profiles that enable ontology modeling through the use of UML-based tools. The metamodels that comprise the ODM reflect the abstract syntax of several standard knowledge representation and conceptual modeling languages that have either been recently adopted by other international standards bodies (e.g., RDF and OWL by the W3C), are in the process of being adopted (e.g., Common Logic and Topic Maps by the ISO) or are considered industry de facto standards (non-normative ER and DL appendices). ODM 1.1 PDF
onology An ontology defines the common terms and concepts (meaning) used to describe and represent an area of knowl- edge. An ontology can range in expressivity from a Taxonomy (knowledge with minimal hierarchy or a parent/child structure), to a Thesaurus (words and synonyms), to a Conceptual Model (with more complex knowledge), to a Logical Theory (with very rich, complex, consistent, and meaningful knowledge). ODM 1.1 PDF
PIM Platform Independent Model A platform independent model is a view of a system from the platform independent viewpoint. A PIM exhibits a specified degree of platform independence so as to be suitable for use with a number of different platforms of similar type. Examples of platforms range from virtual machines, to programming languages, to deployment platforms, to applications, depending on the perspective of the modeler and application being modeled. ODM 1.1 PDF
PSM Platform Specific Model A platform specific model is a view of a system from the platform specific viewpoint. A PSM combines the specifications in the PIM with the details that specify how that system uses a particular type of platform. ODM 1.1 PDF
RDF Resource Description Framework The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for representing information in the Web. RDF has an abstract syntax that reflects a simple graph-based data model, and formal semantics with a rigorously defined notion of entailment providing a basis for well founded deductions in RDF data. The vocabulary is fully extensible, being based on URIs with optional fragment identifiers (URI references, or URIrefs). For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to RDF should be considered references to the set of RDF recommendations available from the World Wide Web Consortium, and in particular, the RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax recommendation. ODM 1.1 PDF
RDFS RDF Schema RDF’s vocabulary description language, RDF Schema, is a semantic extension of RDF. It provides mechanisms for describing groups of related resources and the relationships between these resources. These resources are used to determine characteristics of other resources, such as the domains and ranges of properties. The RDF vocabulary description language class and property system is similar to the type systems of object-oriented programming languages such as Java. RDF differs from many such systems in that instead of defining a class in terms of the properties its instances may have, the RDF vocabulary description language describes properties in terms of the classes of resource to which they apply. For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to RDF Schema should be considered references to the set of RDF recommendations available from the World Wide Web Consortium, and in particular, the RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema recommendation. ODM 1.1 PDF
TM Topic Maps Topic Maps provide a model and grammar for representing the structure of information resources used to define topics, and the associations (relationships) between topics. Names, resources, and relationships are said to be characteristics of abstract subjects, which are called topics. Topics have their characteristics within scopes: i.e., the limited contexts within which the names and resources are regarded as their name, resource, and relationship characteristics. One or more interrelated documents employing this grammar is called a “topic map.” For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to Topic Maps should be considered references to the draft ISO standard. ODM 1.1 PDF
traditional first order logic The traditional algebraic (or mathematical) formulations of logic generally described by Russell, Whitehead, Peano, and Pierce, dealing with quantification, negation, and logical relations as expressed in propositions that are strictly true or false. This specifically excludes reasoning over relations and excludes using the same name as both an individual name and a relation name. ODM 1.1 PDF
UML Unified Modeling Language The Unified Modeling Language, an adopted OMG standard, is a visual language for specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of systems. It is a general-purpose modeling language that can be used with all major object and component methods, and that can be applied to all application domains (e.g., health, finance, telecommunications, aerospace) and implementation platforms (e.g., J2EE, .NET). For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to UML should be considered references to the Unified Modeling Language 2.0 Infrastructure and Superstructure Specifications. ODM 1.1 PDF
universe of discourse A non-empty set over which the quantifiers of a logic language are understood to range. Sometimes called a “domain of discourse.” ODM 1.1 PDF
vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of designations (such as terms and names) and verb concept wordings primarily drawn from a single language to express concepts within a body of shared meanings. Note that this specification does not use the word “vocabulary” to refer to a dictionary or to any other sort of collection of terminological data. SBVR 1.2 PDF
OWL Web Ontology Language The OWL Web Ontology Language is designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information instead of just presenting information to humans. OWL can be used to explicitly represent the meaning of terms in vocabularies and the relationships between those terms. This representation of terms and their interrelationships is called an ontology. OWL has more facilities for expressing meaning and semantics than XML, RDF, and RDF-S, and thus OWL goes beyond these languages in its ability to represent machine interpretable content on the Web. OWL has three increasingly-expressive sub- languages: OWL Lite, OWL DL, and OWL Full. For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to OWL should be considered references to the set of OWL recommendations available from the World Wide Web Consortium, and in particular, the OWL Web Ontology Language Semantics and Abstract Syntax recommendation. ODM 1.1 PDF
XMI XML Metadata Interchange XMI is a widely used interchange format for sharing objects using XML. Sharing objects in XML is a comprehensive solution that build on sharing data with XML. XMI is applicable to a wide variety of objects: analysis (UML), software (Java, C++), components (EJB, IDL, CORBA Component Model), and databases (CWM). For the purpose of this ODM specification, references to XMI should be considered references to the XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) 2.0 Specification. ODM 1.1 PDF
XML eXtensible Markup Language Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a simple, very flexible text format derived from SGML (ISO 8879). Originally designed to meet the challenges of large-scale electronic publishing, XML is also playing an increasingly important role in the exchange of a wide variety of data on the Web and elsewhere. RDF and OWL build on XML as a basis for representing business semantics on the Web. ODM 1.1 PDF
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