Within this context, the following definition of Stakeholder is used:
In a centralized or decentralized topography, this definition is adequate; however, in a distributed topography the understanding of what the [target] organization is becomes important. In a DIDO, this is by design and intent. There is no centralized authority or centralized cluster for the data, the processing of which is considered a major feature of the distributed architecture. It is a network of peers working together in parallel and simultaneously to solve problems. In other words, no single organization owns:
In contrast to distributed systems, centralized systems (i.e., mainframes) are the authority for computation and data. In essence, the only reality is the processes and data that reside in the centralized system.
This is also in contrast to decentralized systems (i.e., traditional cloud servers), which rely on well-orchestrated and coordinated efforts of a few well connected and synchronized systems. Collective servers are the authority for the computation and data. In essence, the only reality is that which can be found on the decentralized servers; the infrastructure is expected to keep the software and data consistent and synchronized. However, this only needs to be concerned with servers that, although they are decentralized, still fall under a single authority thereby making the requirements, architecture, design, implementation, and maintenance relatively easy.
Both centralized and decentralized systems often have extensive data models and functionality, which adds to the complexity of managing them. This generally requires a single governing body (i.e., enterprise) to be ultimately responsible for the entire ecosystem and the lifecycle of the systems and the integration of components including hardware, operating systems, database management systems, web servers, application servers, software languages, networking, and other protocols. These “stacks” often result in stovepipe solutions.
In distributed systems, much of the ecosystem and governance of the components is handled by various Communities of Interest (CoIs): each has a responsibility for different aspects of the distributed system. The traditional role of a corporation or enterprise is to participate in these communities. The following graphic illustrates the various communities considered to be “customers” of the DIDO RA.
Each of these areas is explained in more detail in the following views, concluding with a list of standards applicable to these Stakeholder Views: